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Countries that exist wholly or partially within geographical Europe

[ the numbers in square brackets refer to notes at the end of this table ]

No. Country Situation
1 Albania 100% within geographical Europe
2 Andorra 100% within geographical Europe
3 Austria 100% within geographical Europe
4 Azerbaijan [1] Area within Europe depends on interpretation of borders
5 Belarus 100% within geographical Europe
6 Belgium 100% within geographical Europe
7 Bosnia and Herzegovina 100% within geographical Europe
8 Bulgaria 100% within geographical Europe
9 Croatia 100% within geographical Europe
10 Czech Republic 100% within geographical Europe
11 Denmark [2] Europe, plus island territories: NA
12 Estonia 100% within geographical Europe
13 Finland 100% within geographical Europe
14 France [2] Europe, plus island/mainland territories: NA, SA, AF, OC
15 Georgia [1] Area within Europe depends on interpretation of borders
16 Germany 100% within geographical Europe
17 Greece [3] Europe, plus islands closer to geographical Asia
18 Hungary 100% within geographical Europe
19 Iceland [4] West Atlantic island, considered 100% within Europe
20 Ireland, Republic of 100% within geographical Europe
21 Italy [2] Europe, plus island territories: AF
22 Kazakhstan [1] Area within Europe depends on interpretation of borders
23 Latvia 100% within geographical Europe
24 Liechtenstein 100% within geographical Europe
25 Lithuania 100% within geographical Europe
26 Luxembourg 100% within geographical Europe
27 Macedonia, F.Y.R. of 100% within geographical Europe
28 Malta 100% within geographical Europe
29 Moldova 100% within geographical Europe
30 Monaco 100% within geographical Europe
31 Montenegro 100% within geographical Europe
32 Netherlands [2] Europe, plus island territories: NA, SA
33 Norway 100% within geographical Europe
34 Poland 100% within geographical Europe
35 Portugal [2] Europe, plus island territories: AF
36 Romania 100% within geographical Europe
37 Russian Federation [5] approximately 20-25% within Europe; 75-80% within Asia
38 San Marino 100% within geographical Europe
39 Serbia 100% within geographical Europe
40 Slovakia 100% within geographical Europe
41 Slovenia 100% within geographical Europe
42 Spain [2] Europe, plus island/mainland territories: AF
43 Sweden 100% within geographical Europe
44 Switzerland 100% within geographical Europe
45 Turkey [6] 3.05% within geographical Europe; 96.95% within Asia
46 Ukraine 100% within geographical Europe
47 United Kingdom 100% within geographical Europe
48 Vatican City 100% within geographical Europe

Notes

  1. There is no universal agreement as to where the eastern border of Europe is defined between the Kara Sea, north of Russia, and the Black Sea entrance to the Bosphorus, dividing Istanbul in Turkey. The three most common definitions are:
    • from Kara, on the Kara Sea, following the water divide of the Ural mountains south to the source of the Ural River; following the Ural River to the Caspian Sea; following the water divide of the Caucasus mountains between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea.
    • from Baydaratskaya Guba, on the Kara Sea, following the eastern side of the Ural mountains and then the Ural River south until the Mugodzhar Hills; following the Emba River to the Caspian Sea; following the Kura River from its mouth on the Caspian Sea, through the Surami passage to the Qvirila River; following the Qvirila River to its mouth by Poti on the Black Sea.
    • from Baydaratskaya Guba, on the Kara Sea, following the eastern side of the Ural mountains and then the Ural River south until the Mugodzhar Hills; following the Emba River to the Caspian Sea; from the Caspian Sea through the Kuma-Manych Depression to the tip of the Sea of Azov, joining with the Black Sea.

    In the both of the first two definitions a significant physical area of Kazakhstan is situated with the borders of Europe. In the first definition, only relatively tiny areas of Georgia and Azerbaijan are located within Europe; the second definition allows for approximately 70% of Georgia and 45% of Azerbaijan.

    The third definition, proposed in 1730 by Philip Johan von Strahlenberg and adopted by Tsarina Anna I of Russia, does not acknowledge the Caucasus mountains as the point of tectonic plate collision between the Arabian plate moving northwards with respect to the Eurasian plate.

  2. Integral parts of the national territory of these countries consists of islands or mainland departments or enclaves that are situated within the continental shelf of another continent, or are otherwise geographically closer to another continent than mainland Europe. Abbreviations used:
    NA = North America, SA = South America, AF = Africa, OC = Oceania.
  3. From the Black Sea coast, the geographical border of Europe passes through the deepest parts of the Black Sea to the mouth of the Bosphorus; on through the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles to the Aegean Sea; through the deepest parts of the Aegean Sea to the Mediterranean and around to the Straits of Gibraltar. The line through the Aegean Sea divides the Greek Islands between continental Europe and continental Asia.
  4. Europe ends in the west at the Atlantic Ocean, although Iceland - a volcanic island that emerged in the North Atlantic Ocean between Europe and North America - is considered wholly European.
  5. See point [1] - the relative proportions of Russia situated in Europe and Asia depend upon which border definition is used.
  6. The geographical boundary between Europe and Asia within Turkey is clearly and consistently defined as passing through the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles.

Countries culturally and/or politcally close to Europe but not within its geographical borders

  Country Situation
  Armenia 100% within geographical Asia
  Cyprus 100% within geographical Asia